Autologous stem cell transplantation in adult patients with intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission and no detectable minimal residual disease. A comparative retrospective study with haploidentical transplants of the global committee and the ALWP of the EBMT

Jia Chen, Myriam Labopin, Thomas Pabst, Xi Zhang, Erlie Jiang, Alessandra Tucci, Jan Cornelissen, Ellen Meijer, Irma Khevelidze, Emmanuelle Polge, Depei Wu, Mohamad Mohty, Norbert-Claude Gorin

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In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of intermediate-risk (IR) in first remission (CR1) with no measurable residual disease (MRD negative), the choice of the best consolidation is questionable. 1122 adult patients from 196 centers, transplanted in 2010-21 were analyzed: 547 received an autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and 575 a Haploidentical donor transplant. Because of a significant interaction, comparisons were done separately for patients with wild-type FLT3 (FLT3-wt) and FLT3-ITD mutation (FLT3-ITD). In FLT3-wt patients, haploidentical transplants had two year lower relapse incidence (RI) (16.9% versus 32.6%; HR = 0.40, p < 0.001), higher NRM higher (17.2% vs 3.5%; HR = 7.02, p < 0.001), similar LFS (65.9% vs 63.8%; p = 0.37) and lower OS (73.2% vs 80.6%; HR = 1.69, p = 0.018). In FLT3-ITD patients, haploidentical transplants had two year lower RI (8.2% vs 47.8%; HR = 0.14, p < 0.001) higher NRM (20.2% vs 5.6%; HR = 3.43, p = 0.002), better LFS (71.5% vs 46.6%; HR = 0.53, p = 0.007) and similar OS (73.5% vs 61.9%; p = 0.44). In IR AML patients with FLT3-wt in MRD negative CR1, autologous stem cell transplantation is a valid option, while in patients with FLT3-ITD, haploidentical transplant is better. Whether autologous transplantation is superior to chemotherapy in FLT3-wt patients and the role of maintenance therapy with FLT3 inhibitors remain to be studied.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1322-1330
Number of pages9
JournalBone marrow transplantation
Issue number12
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

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