Axial Spondyloarthritis in the Era of Precision Medicine

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In axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the first treatment step is generally a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and if insufficient, a biologic is added. Currently, most evidence is available of the biologic tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors. In patients who have achieved sustained low disease activity, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor tapering is considered, although standardized tapering schedules are lacking. In axSpA patients with extra-articular manifestations, the effect of axSpA treatment on these extra-articular manifestations is important to determine the preferred therapy. Overall, it is recommended that treatment of axSpA be individualized based on the most prominent symptoms and presence of extra-articular and peripheral symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367-378
Number of pages12
JournalRheumatic Disease Clinics of North America
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Anterior uveitis
  • Extra-articular manifestations
  • Spondyloarthritis

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