In axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the first treatment step is generally a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and if insufficient, a biologic is added. Currently, most evidence is available of the biologic tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors. In patients who have achieved sustained low disease activity, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor tapering is considered, although standardized tapering schedules are lacking. In axSpA patients with extra-articular manifestations, the effect of axSpA treatment on these extra-articular manifestations is important to determine the preferred therapy. Overall, it is recommended that treatment of axSpA be individualized based on the most prominent symptoms and presence of extra-articular and peripheral symptoms.
- Ankylosing spondylitis
- Anterior uveitis
- Extra-articular manifestations