BACKGROUND: To assess the barriers and facilitators associated with upscaling the Transmural Trauma Care Model (TTCM), a multidisciplinary and patient-centred transmural rehabilitation care model.

METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight trauma surgeons, eight hospital-based physiotherapists, eight trauma patients, and eight primary care physiotherapists who were part of a trauma rehabilitation network. Audio recordings of the interviews were made and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a framework method based on the "constellation approach". Identified barriers and facilitators were grouped into categories related to structure, culture, and practice.

RESULTS: Various barriers and facilitators to upscaling were identified. Under structure, barriers and facilitators belonged to one of five themes: "financial structure", "communication structure", "physical structures and resources", "rules and regulations", and "organisation of the network". Under culture, the five themes were "commitment", "job satisfaction", "acting as a team", "quality and efficiency of care", and "patients' experience". Under practice, the two themes were "practical issues at the outpatient clinic" and "knowledge gained".

CONCLUSION: The success of upscaling the TTCM differed across hospitals and settings. The most important prerequisites for successfully upscaling the TTCM were adequate financial support and presence of "key actors" within an organisation who felt a sense of urgency for change and/or expected the intervention to increase their job satisfaction.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: NL8163 The Netherlands National Trial Register, date of registration 16-11-2019.

Original languageEnglish
Article number195
Pages (from-to)195
JournalBMC Health Services Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 13 Feb 2024


  • Constellation approach
  • Fractures
  • Framework method
  • Implementation
  • Process evaluation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Trauma

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