Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation of the Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator: A Multicenter Survey Study

Liesanne E. J. van Veen, Bo M. van der Weijden, Leti van Bodegom-Vos, Jeroen Hol, Douwe H. Visser, Niek B. Achten, Frans B. Plötz

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Prior studies demonstrated the neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) calculator’s potential in drastically reducing antibiotic prescriptions, and its international adoption is increasing rapidly. To optimize the EOS calculator’s impact, successful implementation is crucial. This study aimed to identify key barriers and facilitators to inform an implementation strategy. A multicenter cross-sectional survey was carried out among physicians, residents, nurses and clinical obstetricians of thirteen Dutch hospitals. Survey development was prepared through a literature search and stakeholder interviews. Data collection and analysis were based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). A total of 465 stakeholders completed the survey. The main barriers concerned the expectance of the department’s capacity problems and the issues with maternal information transfer between departments. Facilitators concerned multiple relative advantages of the EOS calculator, including stakeholder education, EOS calculator integration in the electronic health record and existing positive expectations about the safety and effectivity of the calculator. Based on these findings, tailored implementation interventions can be developed, such as identifying early adopters and champions, conducting educational meetings tailored to the target group, creating ready-to-use educational materials, integrating the EOS calculator into electronic health records, creating a culture of collective responsibility among departments and collecting data to evaluate implementation success and innovation results.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1682
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2023


  • barriers
  • early-onset sepsis
  • facilitators
  • implementation
  • neonatal early-onset sepsis calculator
  • neonates
  • stakeholders

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