Blinded Physiological Assessment of Residual Ischemia After Successful Angiographic Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The DEFINE PCI Study

Allen Jeremias, Justin E. Davies, Akiko Maehara, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Joel Schneider, Kare Tang, Suneel Talwar, Koen Marques, Nicolas W. Shammas, Luis Gruberg, Arnold Seto, Habib Samady, Andrew Sharp, Ziad A. Ali, Gary Mintz, Manesh Patel, Gregg W. Stone

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132 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the incidence and causes of an abnormal instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) after angiographically successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Background: Impaired coronary physiology as assessed by fractional flow reserve is present in some patients after PCI and is prognostically relevant. Methods: DEFINE PCI (Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenosis Following PCI) was a multicenter, prospective, observational study in which a blinded iFR pull back was performed after angiographically successful PCI in 562 vessels in 500 patients. Inclusion criteria were angina with either multivessel or multilesion coronary artery disease with an abnormal baseline iFR. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of residual ischemia after operator-assessed angiographically successful PCI, defined as an iFR <0.90. The causes of impaired iFR were categorized as stent related, untreated proximal or distal focal stenosis, or diffuse atherosclerosis. Results: An average of 1.1 vessels per patient had abnormal baseline iFRs, with a mean value of 0.69 ± 0.22, which improved to 0.93 ± 0.07 post-PCI. Residual ischemia after angiographically successful PCI was present in 112 patients (24.0%), with a mean iFR in that population of 0.84 ± 0.06 (range 0.60 to 0.89). Among patients with impaired post-PCI iFRs, 81.6% had untreated focal stenoses that were angiographically inapparent, and 18.4% had diffuse disease. Among the focal lesions, 38.4% were located within the stent segment, while 31.5% were proximal and 30.1% were distal to the stent. Post-PCI vessel angiographic diameter stenosis was not a predictor of impaired post-procedural iFR. Conclusions: Blinded post-PCI physiological assessment detected residual ischemia in nearly 1 in 4 patients after coronary stenting despite an operator-determined angiographically successful result. Most cases of residual ischemia were due to inapparent focal lesions potentially amenable to treatment with additional PCI. (Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenosis Following PCI [DEFINE PCI]; NCT03084367)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1991-2001
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 28 Oct 2019

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