ObjectiveWe aim to give an overview of the available evidence on brain structure and function in PHIV-infected patients (PHIV+) using long-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and how differences change over time.MethodsWe conducted an electronic search using MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. We used the following selection criteria: Cohort and cross-sectional studies that reported on brain imaging differences between PHIV+ of all ages who used cART for at least six months before neuroimaging and HIV-negative controls. Two reviewers independently selected studies, performed data extraction, and assessed quality of studies.ResultsAfter screening 1500 abstracts and 343 full-text articles, we identified 19 eligible articles. All included studies had a cross-sectional design and used MRI with different modalities: Structural MRI (n = 7), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (n = 6), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 5), arterial spin labeling (n = 1), and resting-state functional neuroimaging (n = 1). Studies showed considerable methodological limitations and heterogeneity, preventing us to perform meta-analyses. DTI data on white matter microstructure suggested poorer directional diffusion in cART-treated PHIV+ compared with controls. Other modalities were inconclusive.ConclusionEvidence may suggest brain structure and function differences in the population of PHIV+ on long-term cART compared with the HIV-negative population. Because of a small study population, and considerable heterogeneity and methodological limitations, the extent of brain structure and function differences on neuroimaging between groups remains unknown.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-442
Number of pages10
JournalNeurology. Clinical Practice
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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