Breast Cancer Risk After Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Influence of Gonadal Hormone Exposure

Inge M. Krul, Annemieke W.J. Opstal-van Winden, Berthe M.P. Aleman, Cécile P.M. Janus, Anna M. van Eggermond, Marie L. De Bruin, Michael Hauptmann, Augustinus D.G. Krol, Michael Schaapveld, Annegien Broeks, Karen R. Kooijman, Sandra Fase, Marnix L. Lybeert, Josée M. Zijlstra, Richard W.M. van der Maazen, Ausrele Kesminiene, Ibrahima Diallo, Florent de Vathaire, Nicola S. Russell, Flora E. van Leeuwen

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Background Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study among female 5-year HL survivors treated before age 41. Hormone exposure and HL treatment data were collected through medical records and questionnaires for 174 BC case patients and 466 control patients. Radiation dose to breast tumor location was estimated based on RT charts, simulation films, and mammography reports. Results We observed a linear radiation dose-response curve with an adjusted excess odds ratio (EOR) of 6.1%/Gy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1%-15.4%). Women with menopause <30 years (caused by high-dose procarbazine or pelvic RT) had a lower BC risk (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.51) than did women with menopause ≥50 years. BC risk increased by 6.4% per additional year of post-RT intact ovarian function (P<.001). Among women with early menopause (<45 years), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use for ≥2 years did not increase BC risk (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.32-2.32), whereas this risk was nonsignificantly increased among women without early menopause (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 0.97-14.0; P for interaction:.06). Stratification by duration of post-RT intact ovarian function or HRT use did not statistically significantly modify the radiation dose-response curve. Conclusions BC risk in female HL survivors increases linearly with radiation dose. HRT does not appear to increase BC risk for HL survivors with therapy-induced early menopause. There are no indications that endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect the radiation dose-response relationship.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)843-853
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2017

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