Capecitabine-based treatment of a patient with a novel DPYD genotype and complete dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
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16 Citations (Scopus)
Fluoropyrimidines are frequently used anti-cancer drugs. It is known that patients with reduced activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the key metabolic enzyme in fluoropyrimidine inactivation, are at increased risk of developing severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. Upfront screening for DPD deficiency and dose reduction in patients with partial DPD deficiency is recommended and improves patient safety. For patients with complete DPD deficiency, fluoropyrimidine-treatment has generally been discouraged. During routine pretreatment screening, we identified a 59-year-old patient with a sigmoid adenocarcinoma who proved to have a complete DPD deficiency. Genetic analyses showed that this complete absence of DPD activity was likely to be caused by a novel DPYD genotype, consisting of a combination of amplification of exons 17 and 18 of DPYD and heterozygosity for DPYD*2A. Despite absence of DPD activity, the patient was treated with capecitabine-based chemotherapy, but capecitabine dose was drastically reduced to 150 mg once every 5 days (0.8% of original dose). Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and half-life of 5-fluorouracil were respectively tenfold and fourfold higher than control values of patients receiving capecitabine 850 mg/m2. When extrapolating from the dosing schedule of once every 5 days to twice daily, the AUC of 5-fluorouracil was comparable to controls. Treatment was tolerated well for eight cycles by the patient without occurrence of capecitabine-related toxicity. This case report demonstrates that a more comprehensive genotyping and phenotyping approach, combined with pharmacokinetically-guided dose administration, enables save fluoropyrimidine-treatment with adequate drug exposure in completely DPD deficient patients.