Carcinoid heart disease: A guide for screening and timing of surgical intervention

E. A. Hart, T. A. Meijs, R. C.A. Meijer, K. M. Dreijerink, M. E. Tesselaar, C. A. de Groot, G. D. Valk, S. A.J. Chamuleau

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The cardiac manifestations of a neuroendocrine tumour are referred to as carcinoid heart disease (CaHD) and are associated with a poor prognosis. Surgical intervention is the only proven therapeutic option and may prolong survival and quality of life. No consensus has been reached internationally with regard to screening for CaHD and the optimal timing for surgery. Although limited evidence is available on this matter, a trend towards early surgery and subsequent reduced mortality has been observed. In this review we provide an overview of the current understanding and propose a protocol to guide cardiologists in the screening for CaHD and the timing of referral to a specialised surgical centre.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-478
Number of pages8
JournalNetherlands heart journal
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2017


  • Carcinoid heart disease
  • Hedinger syndrome
  • Screening
  • Surgery
  • Valvular disease

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