Chemokines and their receptors in whiplash injury: elevated RANTES and CCR-5

J Kivioja, L Rinaldi, V Ozenci, M Kouwenhoven, N Kostulas, U Lindgren, H Link

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The human sufferings and socioeconomic burden due to whip-lash-associated disorders (WAD) are obvious but the pathogenesis of WAD is obscure. The possible involvement of the immune system during the disease process in WAD is not known. Effector molecules including chemokines and their receptors could play a role in WAD. In a prospective study using flow cytometry, we examined percentages of blood mononuclear cells (MNC) expressing the chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and IL-8, the chemokine receptor CCR-5, the T cell activation marker CD25, and the T cell chemoattractant IL-16 in patients with WAD and, for reference, in healthy controls. Higher percentages of RANTES-expressing blood MNC and T cells were observed in patients with WAD examined within 3 days compared to 14 days after the whiplash injury and, likewise, compared with healthy controls. The patients with WAD examined within 3 days after the accident also had higher percentages of CCR-5-expressing blood MNC, T cells, and CD45RO+ T cells compared to healthy controls. In contrast, there were no differences for any of these variables between patients with WAD examined 14 days after injury and healthy controls. In conclusion, WAD is associated with a systemic but transient dysregulation in percentages of RANTES and CCR-5 expressing MNC and T cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)272-7
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of clinical immunology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2001


  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemokine CCL2/blood
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Chemokine CCL5/blood
  • Chemokines/blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-16/blood
  • Interleukin-8/blood
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins/blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Receptors, CCR5/blood
  • Receptors, Chemokine/blood
  • Receptors, Interleukin-2/blood
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
  • Time Factors
  • Whiplash Injuries/immunology

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