Circulating Blood-Based Biomarkers in Pulmonary Hypertension

Marta Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra Gąsecka, Szymon Darocha, Michał Florczyk, Arkadiusz Pietrasik, Piotr Kędzierski, Michał Piłka, Adam Torbicki, Marcin Kurzyna

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious hemodynamic condition, characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), leading to right heart failure (HF) and death when not properly treated. The prognosis of PH depends on etiology, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters, as well as on response to specific treatment. Biomarkers appear to be useful noninvasive tools, providing information about the disease severity, treatment response, and prognosis. However, given the complexity of PH, it is impossible for a single biomarker to be adequate for the broad assessment of patients with different types of PH. The search for novel emerging biomarkers is still ongoing, resulting in a few potential biomarkers mirroring numerous pathophysiological courses. In this review, markers related to HF, myocardial remodeling, inflammation, hypoxia and tissue damage, and endothelial and pulmonary smooth muscle cell dysfunction are discussed in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. Extracellular vesicles and other markers with complex backgrounds are also reviewed. In conclusion, although many promising biomarkers have been identified and studied in recent years, there are still insufficient data on the application of multimarker strategies for monitoring and risk stratification in PH patients.
Original languageEnglish
Article number383
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Biomarkers
  • Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Right heart failure

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