Closed system anaesthesia--historical aspects and recent developments

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Closed circuit anaesthesia was described decades ago but did not achieve wide popularity among anaesthesiologists mainly because reliable control of inspiratory gas concentrations was not possible. Recent innovations including fast gas analysers, electronically controlled dosage systems and algorithms for feedback control have made possible the development of sophisticated closed circuit ventilators designed for routine clinical practice. The main advantages comprise economic use of medical gases and volatile anaesthetics, reduction of anaesthetic gas loss into the atmosphere, improved airway acclimatization as well as estimations of oxygen consumption. This article reviews historical aspects, recent developments as well as advantages and limitations of closed system anaesthesia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)914-20
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Anaesthesiology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2006


  • Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit/history
  • Anesthesia, Inhalation/history
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage
  • History, 15th Century
  • History, 16th Century
  • History, 17th Century
  • History, 18th Century
  • History, 19th Century
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Monitoring, Physiologic/methods
  • Ventilators, Mechanical/history

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