Coupling additive manufacturing with hot melt extrusion technologies to validate a ventilator-associated pneumonia mouse model

Bahaa Shaqour, Juliana Aizawa, Clara Guarch-Pérez, Żaneta Górecka, Lars Christophersen, Wim Martinet, Emilia Choińska, Martijn Riool, Bart Verleije, Koen Beyers, Claus Moser, Wojciech Święszkowski, Sebastian A. J. Zaat, Paul Cos

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Additive manufacturing is widely used to produce highly complex structures. Moreover, this technology has proven its superiority in producing tools which can be used in different appli-cations. We designed and produced an extrusion nozzle that allowed us to hot melt extrude drug-loaded tubes. The tubes were an essential part of a new mouse ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) model. Ciprofloxacin (CPX) was selected for its expected activity against the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and ease of incorporation into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). TPU was selected as the carrier polymer for its biocompatibility and use in a variety of medical devices such as tubing and catheters. The effect of loading CPX within the TPU polymeric matrix and the physicochemical properties of the produced tubes were investigated. CPX showed good thermal stability and in vitro activity in preventing S. aureus biofilm formation after loading within the tube’s polymeric matrix. Moreover, the produced tubes showed anti-infective efficacy in vivo. The produced tubes, which were extruded via our novel nozzle, were vital for the validation of our mouse VAP model. This model can be adopted to investigate other antibacterial and antibiofilm compounds incorporated in polymeric tubes using hot melt extrusion.
Original languageEnglish
Article number772
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Anti-infective
  • Antibiofilm
  • Biomaterials
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Endotracheal tubes
  • Extrusion die
  • Extrusion nozzle
  • Hot melt extrusion
  • Medical devices
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia

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