Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory bone disease caused by an infecting microorganism leading to a gradual bone loss. Due to the difficulty in studying osteomyelitis directly in patients, animal models allow researchers to investigate the pathogenesis of the infection and the development of novel prophylactic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial treatment strategies. This review is specifically focused on the in vivo mouse osteomyelitis studies available in literature. Thus, a systematic search on Web of Science and PubMed was conducted using the query "(infection) AND (mice OR mouse OR murine) AND (model OR models) AND (arthroplasty OR fracture OR (internal fixator) OR (internal fixation OR prosthesis OR implant OR osteomyelitis)". After critical assessment of the studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 135 studies were included in the detailed analysis. Based on the model characteristics, the studies were classified into five subject groups: haematogenous osteomyelitis, post-traumatic osteomyelitis, bone-implant-related infection, peri-prosthetic joint infection, fracture-related infection. In addition, the characteristics of the mice used, such as inbred strain, age or gender, the characteristics of the pathogens used, the inoculation methods, the type of anaesthesia and analgesia used during surgery and the procedures for evaluating the pathogenicity of the infecting micro-organism were described. Overall, the mouse is an excellent first step in vivo model to study the pathogenesis, inflammation and healing process of osteomyelitis and to evaluate novel prophylaxis and treatment strategies.