Background: Gray matter atrophy, an important biomarker for early Alzheimer's disease, might be due to white matter changes within gray matter. Methods: Twenty older participants with significant memory decline over a 12-year period (T12) were matched to 20 nondeclining participants. All participants were magnetic resonance imaging scanned at T12. Cortical thickness and diffusion tensor imaging analyses were performed. Results: Lower cortical thickness values were associated with lower diffusion values in frontal and parietal gray matter areas. This association was only present in the memory decline group. The cortical thickness-diffusion tensor imaging correlations showed significant group differences in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions: Decreased gray matter diffusivity in the posterior cingulate/precuneus area might be a disease-specific process and a potential new biomarker for early Alzheimer's disease. Future studies should validate its potential as a biomarker and focus on cellular changes underlying diffusivity changes in gray matter. © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.