The incidence of aortic valve stenosis (AoS) increases with age, and once diagnosed, symptomatic severe AoS has a yearly mortality rate of 25%. AoS is diagnosed with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), however, this gold standard is time consuming and operator and acoustic window dependent. As AoS affects the arterial blood pressure waveform, AoS-specific waveform features might serve as a diagnostic tool. Aim of the present study was to develop a novel, non-invasive, AoS detection model based on blood pressures waveforms. This cross-sectional study included patients with AoS undergoing elective transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement. AoS was determined using TTE, and patients with no or mild AoS were labelled as patients without AoS, while patients with moderate or severe AoS were labelled as patients with AoS. Non-invasive blood pressure measurements were performed in awake patients. Ten minutes of consecutive data was collected. Several blood pressure-based features were derived, and the median, interquartile range, variance, and the 1st and 9th decile of the change of these features were calculated. The primary outcome was the development of a machine-learning model for AoS detection, investigating multiple classifiers and training on the area under the receiver-operating curve (AUROC). In total, 101 patients with AoS and 48 patients without AoS were included. Patients with AoS showed an increase in left ventricular ejection time (0.02 s, p = 0.001), a delayed maximum upstroke in the systolic phase (0.015 s, p < 0.001), and a delayed maximal systolic pressure (0.03 s, p < 0.001) compared to patients without AoS. With the logistic regression model, a sensitivity of 0.81, specificity of 0.67, and AUROC of 0.79 were found. The majority of the population without AoS was male (85%), whereas in the population with AoS this was evenly distributed (54% males). Age was significantly (5 years, p < 0.001) higher in the population with AoS. In the present study, we developed a novel model able to distinguish no to mild AoS from moderate to severe AoS, based on blood pressure features with high accuracy. Clinical registration number: The study entailing patients with TAVR treatment was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03088787, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03088787). The study with elective cardiac surgery patients was registered with the Netherland Trial Register (NL7810, https://trialsearch.who.int/Trial2.aspx?TrialID=NL7810).

Original languageEnglish
Early online date2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2024


  • Aortic valve stenosis
  • Blood pressure
  • Nexfin
  • Non-invasive blood pressure
  • Prediction model

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