Determinants of Kidney Failure in Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1: Findings of the European Hyperoxaluria Consortium

Elisabeth L. Metry, Sander F. Garrelfs, Lisa J. Deesker, Cecile Acquaviva, Viola D'Ambrosio, Justine Bacchetta, Bodo B. Beck, Pierre Cochat, Laure Collard, Julien Hogan, Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Casper F. M. Franssen, J. rôme Harambat, Sally-Anne Hulton, Graham W. Lipkin, Giorgia Mandrile, Cristina Martin-Higueras, Nilufar Mohebbi, Shabbir H. Moochhala, Thomas J. NeuhausLarisa Prikhodina, Eduardo Salido, Rezan Topaloglu, Michiel J. S. Oosterveld, Jaap W. Groothoff, Hessel Peters-Sengers

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Introduction: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) has a highly heterogeneous disease course. Apart from the c.508G>A (p.Gly170Arg) AGXT variant, which imparts a relatively favorable outcome, little is known about determinants of kidney failure. Identifying these is crucial for disease management, especially in this era of new therapies. Methods: In this retrospective study of 932 patients with PH1 included in the OxalEurope registry, we analyzed genotype-phenotype correlations as well as the impact of nephrocalcinosis, urolithiasis, and urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion on the development of kidney failure, using survival and mixed model analyses. Results: The risk of developing kidney failure was the highest for 175 vitamin-B6 unresponsive (“null”) homozygotes and lowest for 155 patients with c.508G>A and c.454T>A (p.Phe152Ile) variants, with a median age of onset of kidney failure of 7.8 and 31.8 years, respectively. Fifty patients with c.731T>C (p.Ile244Thr) homozygote variants had better kidney survival than null homozygotes (P = 0.003). Poor outcomes were found in patients with other potentially vitamin B6-responsive variants. Nephrocalcinosis increased the risk of kidney failure significantly (hazard ratio [HR] 3.17 [2.03–4.94], P < 0.001). Urinary oxalate and glycolate measurements were available in 620 and 579 twenty-four-hour urine collections from 117 and 87 patients, respectively. Urinary oxalate excretion, unlike glycolate, was higher in patients who subsequently developed kidney failure (P = 0.034). However, the 41% intraindividual variation of urinary oxalate resulted in wide confidence intervals. Conclusion: In conclusion, homozygosity for AGXT null variants and nephrocalcinosis were the strongest determinants for kidney failure in PH1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2029-2042
Number of pages14
JournalKidney International Reports
Issue number10
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • kidney failure
  • nephrocalcinosis
  • primary hyperoxaluria
  • urinary glycolate
  • urinary oxalate
  • urolithiasis

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