Development and psychometric properties of a pain-related problem list for adolescents (PPL)

Sara Weel, Vivian Merlijn, Jan Passchier, Bart Koes, Johannes Van Der Wouden, Lisette Van Suijlekom-Smit, Joke Hunfeld

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Instruments for measuring pain-related problems in adolescents with chronic pain are sparse, especially those based on the personal experiences of these adolescents. This study aimed to develop and test such an instrument, the pain-related problem list for adolescents (PPL). A sample of 129 adolescents with chronic pain without documented physiological etiology completed the 57-item problem list, which was based on interviews with a similar group of adolescents with chronic pain. Principal components analysis yielded four domains: problems related to (1) concentration; (2) mobility; (3) adaptability; and (4) mood. The questionnaire was shortened to 18 items and has good reliability (total α = 0.82; concentration α = 0.86; mobility α = 0.77; adaptability α = 0.71; and mood α = 0.78); the validity also proved to be adequate, especially in the general population sample. The PPL provides a tool to assess the impact of chronic pain in adolescents. Future research should focus on further validation of the PPL in a large clinical population and establishing its test-retest reliability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-215
Number of pages7
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2005


  • Adolescents
  • Chronic pain
  • Pain problems
  • Questionnaire development

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