Background: Comprehensive data on long COVID across ethnic and migrant groups are lacking. We investigated incidence, nature of symptoms, clinical predictors, and duration of long COVID among COVID-19 hospitalised patients in the Netherlands by migration background (Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese origin, Others). Methods: We used COVID-19 admissions and follow up data (January 2021–July 2022) from Amsterdam University Medical Centers. We calculated long COVID incidence proportions per NICE guidelines by migration background and assessed for clinical predictors via robust Poisson regressions. We then examined associations between migration background and long COVID using robust Poisson regressions and adjusted for derived clinical predictors, and other biologically relevant factors. We also assessed long COVID symptom persistence at one-year post-discharge. Findings: 1886 patients were included. 483 patients had long COVID (26%, 95% CI 24–28%) at 12 weeks post-discharge. Symptoms like dizziness, joint pain, insomnia, and headache varied by migration background. Clinical predictors of long COVID were female sex, hospital admission duration, intensive care unit admission, and receiving oxygen, or corticosteroid therapy. Long COVID risk was higher among patients with migration background than Dutch origin patients after adjustments for derived clinical predictors, age, smoking, vaccination status, comorbidities and remdesivir treatment. Only 14% of long COVID symptoms persisted at one-year post-discharge. Interpretation: There are significant differences in occurrence, nature of symptoms, and duration of long COVID by migration background. Studies assessing the spectrum of functional limitation and access to post-COVID healthcare are needed to help plan for appropriate and accessible healthcare interventions. Funding: The Amsterdam UMC COVID-19 biobank is supported by the Amsterdam UMC Corona Research Fund and the Talud Foundation (Stichting Talud). The current analyses were supported by the Novo Nordisk Foundation [ NNF21OC0067528].
Original languageEnglish
Article number100630
JournalThe Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Ethnicity
  • Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome
  • Transients and migrants

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