Introduction: Urolithiasis in renal allografts is relatively rare with an incidence of 0.17–4.40%. It is nonetheless an important issue, as there is a risk of obstruction, sepsis and even loss of the renal allograft. The management of stones in renal allografts remains challenging because of the anatomy, the renal denervation and the use of immunosuppressive medication. Case presentation: This report discusses the ex-vivo treatment of asymptomatic nephrolithiasis in a living donor kidney allograft. A CT abdomen revealed a lower pole stone (5.9 × 5.5 × 5.0 mm; 920 HU) in the right kidney of the potential donor. After multidisciplinary discussion, it was decided to procure the right kidney despite the presence of a documented nephrolithiasis. After discussion with both donor and recipient, an ex-vivo flexible ureterorenoscopy for stone removal on the back table just before implantation of the allograft was planned. The stone was found in the lower pole covered by a thin film of the urothelium. The thin film of urothelium was opened with a laser and the stone fragments were retrieved with a basket. CT after one month showed no residual stones in the transplanted kidney. Conclusion: Back-table endoscopy in a renal allograft is a feasible technique and should be discussed as an option in case of urolithiasis in a kidney that is considered for transplantation. Furthermore, the appropriate treatment of donor kidney lithiasis is another, although rare, method to expand the living donor renal allograft pool.
Original languageEnglish
JournalActa Chirurgica Belgica
Early online date2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2021


  • Back-table endoscopy
  • endourology
  • nephrolithiasis
  • renal allograft
  • renal transplant

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