Effect of high-salt diet on blood pressure and body fluid composition in patients with type 1 diabetes: randomized controlled intervention trial

Eliane F. E. Wenstedt, Nienke M. G. Rorije, Rik H. G. Olde Engberink, Kim M. van der Molen, Youssef Chahid, A. H. Jan Danser, Bert-Jan H. van den Born, Liffert Vogt

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INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 1 diabetes are susceptible to hypertension, possibly resulting from increased salt sensitivity and accompanied changes in body fluid composition. We examined the effect of a high-salt diet (HSD) in type 1 diabetes on hemodynamics, including blood pressure (BP) and body fluid composition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied eight male patients with type 1 diabetes and 12 matched healthy controls with normal BP, body mass index, and renal function. All subjects adhered to a low-salt diet and HSD for eight days in randomized order. On day 8 of each diet, extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) and plasma volume were calculated with the use of iohexol and 125I-albumin distribution. Hemodynamic measurements included BP, cardiac output (CO), and systemic vascular resistance. RESULTS: After HSD, patients with type 1 diabetes showed a BP increase (mean arterial pressure: 85 (5) mm Hg vs 80 (3) mm Hg; p<0.05), while BP in controls did not rise (78 (5) mm Hg vs 78 (5) mm Hg). Plasma volume increased after HSD in patients with type 1 diabetes (p<0.05) and not in controls (p=0.23). There was no significant difference in ECFV between diets, while HSD significantly increased CO, heart rate (HR) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in type 1 diabetes but not in controls. There were no significant differences in systemic vascular resistance, although there was a trend towards an HSD-induced decrease in controls (p=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, patients with type 1 diabetes show a salt-sensitive BP rise to HSD, which is accompanied by significant increases in plasma volume, CO, HR, and NT-proBNP. Underlying mechanisms for these responses need further research in order to unravel the increased susceptibility to hypertension and cardiovascular disease in diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NTR4095 and NTR4788.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere001039
JournalBMJ open diabetes research & care
Publication statusPublished - 12 May 2020


  • extracellular fluid volume
  • hypertension
  • plasma volume
  • salt
  • salt sensitivity
  • sodium
  • systemic vascular resistance
  • type 1 diabetes
  • vasodilation

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