Aims: To summarize and critically appraise evidence regarding the effectiveness of educational and/or behavioural interventions in reducing fear of hypoglycaemia among adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Systematic searches of medical and psychology databases were conducted. Risk-of-bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. Data were synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and narrative synthesis for observational studies. Results: Five RCTs (N = 682) and seven observational studies (N = 1519) met the inclusion criteria, reporting on behavioural, structured education and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions. Most studies assessed fear of hypoglycaemia using the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey Worry (HFS-W) and Behaviour (HFS-B) subscales. Mean fear of hypoglycaemia at baseline was relatively low across studies. Meta-analyses showed a significant effect of interventions on HFS-W (SMD = −0.17, p = 0.032) but not on HFS-B scores (SMD = −0.34, p = 0.113). Across RCTs, Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT) had the largest effect on HFS-W and HFS-B scores, and one CBT-based program was as effective as BGAT in reducing HFS-B scores. Observational studies showed that Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) was associated with significant fear of hypoglycaemia reductions. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that educational and behavioural interventions can reduce fear of hypoglycaemia. However, no study to date has examined these interventions among people with high fear of hypoglycaemia.
|Early online date||2023|
|Publication status||Published - May 2023|
- fear of hypoglycaemia
- low blood glucose
- type 1 diabetes