Evaluation of sex differences in patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction: an observational cohort study in Amsterdam and surrounding region

T. Kerkman, L. B.G. ten Brinke, B. Huybrechts, R. Adams, G. Amoroso, R. J. de Winter, Y. Appelman

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Introduction: Women with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) present with different symptoms compared to men. This can result in delays in diagnosis and in the timely treatment of women. The aim of this study is to examine these differences, including the short- and long-term mortality in women and men. Methods: This quality registry study included all patients with STEMI who received primary percutaneous coronary intervention in 2015 or 2016 in Amsterdam and the surrounding region. Results: Three PCI centres and the Emergency Medical Service in Amsterdam participated. In total, 558 men (71%) and 229 women (29%) were included. Women were on average 7 years older than men (68 vs 61 years, p < 0.001), and suffered more often from hypertension (46% vs 34%, p = 0.002) and monovascular disease (69% vs 57%, p = 0.002). A higher percentage of men were current smokers (41% vs 49%, p = 0.043). Patient delay, system delay and overall ischaemic times were similar in both women and men (medians: 51, 94 and 157 min, respectively). Initiation of treatment was achieved within 90 min after STEMI diagnosis in 85% of patients (87% in women, 85% in men). Thirty-day and 1‑year mortality adjusted hazard ratio for women versus men was 1.60 (95% CI 0.9–3.0) and 1.24 (95% CI 0.8–2.0), respectively. Discussion: Recognition of cardiac complaints remains challenging for patients. In the Amsterdam region, time delays and mortality were not significantly different between men and women presenting with STEMI. These results are in contrast to findings in similar registries. This suggests that implementation of current knowledge and national campaigns are effective in increasing awareness of the signs and symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-603
Number of pages9
JournalNetherlands heart journal
Issue number11
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2020


  • Amsterdam
  • Primary percutaneous coronary intervention
  • ST-elevation myocardial infarction
  • Sex differences

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