Factors that influence the pancreatic and duodenal microbiome in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery

Eline S. Zwart, Suzanne Jeleniewski, Lenka N. C. Boyd, Laura L. Meijer, Jisce R. Puik, Barbara M. Zonderhuis, Freek Daams, Andries E. Budding, Reina E. Mebius, Geert Kazemier

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Background/Objectives This study examined the correlation between pancreatic microbiome and patients characteristics. Furthermore, we compared different duodenal materials to examine their reflection of the pancreatic microbiome. Methods Patients undergoing pancreatic surgery were included in the study. Characteristics of those patients were prospectively registered and sterile pancreatic biopsies were collected during surgery. After completion of the resection, duodenal fluid, -tissue and -swab were collected. Bacterial DNA was extracted and analyzed with IS-pro assay. Results Paired samples of 51 patients were available for evaluation, including pancreatic biopsies from all patients, 22 duodenal fluids, 21 duodenal swabs and 11 duodenal tissues. The pancreatic microbiome consisted mostly of Proteobacteria followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Verrucomicrobia (FAFV) and Bacteroidetes. On species level, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter-Klebsiella were most abundant. In pancreatic biopsies, the total bacterial load and Proteobacteria load were significantly higher in patients with biliary drainage (54618.0 vs 5623.5; 9119.0 vs 2067.1). Patients who used proton pump inhibitors had a significantly higher total bacterial load (115964.7 vs 8495.8), more FAFV (66862.9 vs 1890.1), more Proteobacteria (24245.9 vs 2951.4) and more Bacteroidetes (542.5 vs 25.8). The head of the pancreas contained significantly more bacteria (21193.4 vs 2096.8) and more FAFV (5225.7 vs 19.0) compared to the tail, regardless of biliary drainage. Furthermore, the microbiome of all duodenal materials showed a weak correlation with the pancreatic microbiome. Conclusion Biliary drainage, use of proton pump inhibitors, and anatomic location of the pancreatic biopsy influence the pancreatic microbiome. Furthermore, the duodenal microbiome does not suffice as a surrogate for the pancreatic microbiome.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0278377
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number12 December
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022

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