Feasibility of CMR Imaging during Biventricular Pacing: Comparison with Invasive Measurement as a Pathway towards a Novel Optimization Strategy

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Objectives: This prospective pilot study assessed the feasibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging during biventricular (BIV) pacing in patients with a CMR conditional cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) and compared the results with invasive volume measurements. Methods: Ten CRT-D patients underwent CMR imaging prior to device implantation (baseline) and six weeks after device implantation, including CRT-on and CRT-off modes. Left ventricular (LV) function, volumes, and strain measurements of LV dyssynchrony and dyscoordination were assessed. Invasive pressure–volume measurements were performed, matching the CRT settings used during CMR. Results: Post-implantation imaging enabled reliable cine assessment, but showed artefacts on late gadolinium enhancement images. After six weeks of CRT, significant reverse remodeling was observed, with a 22.7 ± 11% reduction in LV end-systolic volume during intrinsic rhythm (CRT-off). During CRT-on, the LV ejection fraction significantly improved from 27.4 ± 5.9% to 32.2 ± 8.7% (p < 0.01), and the strain assessment showed the abolition of the left bundle branch block contraction pattern. Invasively measured and CMR-assessed LV hemodynamics during BIV pacing were significantly associated. Conclusions: Post-CRT implantation CMR assessing acute LV pump function is feasible and provides important insights into the effects of BIV pacing on cardiac function and contraction patterns. LV assessment during CMR may constitute a future CRT optimization strategy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3998
JournalClinical Chemistry
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023


  • biventricular pacing
  • cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)
  • cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)
  • dyssynchrony

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