Fluid and pain management in liver surgery (MILESTONE): A worldwide study among surgeons and anesthesiologists

Timothy H. Mungroop, Bart F. Geerts, Denise P. Veelo, Timothy M. Pawlik, Aurélie Bonnet, Mickaël Lesurtel, Koen M. Reyntjens, Takehiro Noji, Chao Liu, Eduard Jonas, Christopher L. Wu, Eduardo de Santibañes, Mohammed Abu Hilal, Markus W. Hollmann, Marc G. Besselink, Thomas M. van Gulik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Fluid and pain management during liver surgery (eg, low central venous pressure) is a classic topic of controversy between anesthesiologists and surgeons. Little is known about practices worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess perioperative practices in liver surgery among and between surgeons and anesthesiologists worldwide that could guide the design of future international studies. Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to 22 societies, including 4 international hepatopancreatobiliary societies, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, and 17 other (inter-)national societies. Results: A total of 913 participants (495 surgeons and 418 anesthesiologists) from 66 countries were surveyed. A large heterogeneity in fluid management practices was identified, with 66% using low central venous pressure, 22% goal-directed fluid therapy, and 6% normovolemia. In addition, large heterogeneity was found regarding pain management practices, with 49% using epidural analgesia, 25% patient-controlled analgesia with opioids, and 12% regional techniques. Most participants assume that there is a relation between perioperative pain management and morbidity and mortality (78% of surgeons vs 89% of anesthesiologists; P <.001). Both surgeons and anesthesiologists have the highest expectations for minimally invasive surgery and enhanced recovery pathways for improving outcomes in liver surgery. No clear differences between continents were found. Conclusion: Worldwide there is a large heterogeneity in fluid and pain management practices in liver surgery. This survey identified several areas of interest for future international studies aiming to improve outcomes in liver surgery.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)337-344
Issue number2
Early online date2018
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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