Functional Outcomes and Urological Complications after Genital Gender Affirming Surgery with Urethral Lengthening in Transgender Men

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PURPOSE: We determined the urological complications and lower urinary tract function after genital gender affirming surgery with urethral lengthening in transgender men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single center, retrospective cohort study was performed from January 2013 to January 2018. Patient demographics, medical history, perioperative data, surgical and urological complications, and preoperative and postoperative urological outcomes were obtained. RESULTS: Of the 63 patients included in the study 8 (13%) underwent metoidioplasty and 55 (87%) phalloplasty, comprised of 27 (43%) free radial forearm flap, 19 (30%) anterolateral thigh flap and 9 (14%) superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap surgeries. In phalloplasty the types of urethral lengthening were tube-in-tube free radial forearm flap in 27 (49%), free radial forearm flap (second fasciocutaneous flap) in 18 (33%), superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap in 5 (9%) or labial in 5 (9%). Mean followup was 23 months (range 12 to 71). Stricture formation occurred in 35 (63%) phalloplasty and 5 (63%) metoidioplasty cases. Urethral fistula formation occurred in 15 (27%) phalloplasty and 4 (50%) metoidioplasty cases. Mean time to strictures and fistulas was approximately 3 months. Overall 46 (73%) patients needed revision surgery because of fistulas/strictures. After treatment 44 (70%) patients were able to void from the tip of the phallus. No clinically relevant differences in International Prostate Symptom Scores, frequency volume charts and uroflowmetry were found preoperatively vs postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Genital gender affirming surgery with urethral lengthening is a complex procedure with a high complication rate. After treating complications no clinically relevant differences in urological functioning were recorded. The majority of transgender men could void from the tip of the penis and showed favorable urological outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-109
Number of pages6
JournalThe journal of urology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2020


  • gender dysphoria
  • lower urinary tract symptoms
  • postoperative complications
  • sex reassignment procedures

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