Gastric acid suppression, lifestyle factors and intestinal carriage of ESBL and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales: a nationwide population-based study

Roel P. J. Willems, Karin van Dijk, Cindy M. Dierikx, Jos W. R. Twisk, Fiona R. M. van der Klis, Sabine C. de Greeff, Christina M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls

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5 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Gastric acid-suppressive therapy has been suggested to increase the risk for intestinal carriage of MDR Enterobacterales, but there is scarce community-based evidence substantiating this risk. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if acid-suppressant use is associated with a risk of intestinal carriage of ESBL and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) in the open population, and to assess possible modifying factors. METHODS: Within the framework of a nationwide seroprevalence study, we identified a population-based cross-sectional cohort comprising 2746 adults (≥18 years), who provided stool specimens between February 2016 and June 2017. Specimens were tested by phenotypic assays and confirmatory genotype analysis to detect carriage of ESBL-E. Covariate data were extracted from self-administered questionnaires. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable multilevel logistic regression, controlling for confounders informed by directed acyclic graphs. RESULTS: Among 2746 participants, 316 (11.5%) used acid suppressants; the prevalence of ESBL-E carriage was 7.4% (95% CI, 6.1%-8.6%). Current use of acid suppressants was not associated with ESBL-E carriage (adjusted OR [aOR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.64-1.74); lifestyle and comorbidity did not modify this association. A higher BMI (≥25 kg/m2) (aOR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.02-1.98]), non-Western ethnic origin (aOR, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.34-2.87]), travel to Eastern-Mediterranean, Western-Pacific or South-East Asia regions (aOR, 3.16 [95% CI, 1.71-5.83]) were associated with ESBL-E carriage. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results; spline analysis supported a BMI-associated risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this open population study, current use of acid suppressants was not associated with ESBL-E carriage. Travel to high-endemic regions and non-Western ethnicity were confirmed as risk factors, while a higher BMI emerged as a potential new risk for ESBL-E carriage.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-245
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
Issue number1
Early online date22 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - 24 Dec 2021

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