GLM-beamformer method demonstrates stationary field, alpha ERD and gamma ERS co-localisation with fMRI BOLD response in visual cortex

Matthew J Brookes, Andrew M Gibson, Stephen D Hall, Paul Lawrence Furlong, Gareth R Barnes, Arjan Hillebrand, Krish D Singh, Ian E Holliday, Sue T Francis, Peter G Morris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

159 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, we introduced a new 'GLM-beamformer' technique for MEG analysis that enables accurate localisation of both phase-locked and non-phase-locked neuromagnetic effects, and their representation as statistical parametric maps (SPMs). This provides a useful framework for comparison of the full range of MEG responses with fMRI BOLD results. This paper reports a 'proof of principle' study using a simple visual paradigm (static checkerboard). The five subjects each underwent both MEG and fMRI paradigms. We demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of a sustained (DC) field in the visual cortex, and its co-localisation with the visual BOLD response. The GLM-beamformer analysis method is also used to investigate the main non-phase-locked oscillatory effects: an event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) and an event-related synchronisation (ERS) in the gamma band (55-70 Hz). We show, using SPMs and virtual electrode traces, the spatio-temporal covariance of these effects with the visual BOLD response. Comparisons between MEG and fMRI data sets generally focus on the relationship between the BOLD response and the transient evoked response. Here, we show that the stationary field and changes in oscillatory power are also important contributors to the BOLD response, and should be included in future studies on the relationship between neuronal activation and the haemodynamic response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)302-8
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Adult
  • Alpha Rhythm
  • Brain Mapping
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation
  • Cortical Synchronization
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
  • Magnetoencephalography
  • Male
  • Oxygen/blood
  • Visual Cortex/physiology

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