Velocity and volumetric flow of left ventricular venous outflow in the distal coronary sinus were measured with magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping techniques in 24 healthy men. A total of 16-21 velocity maps were acquired throughout the cardiac cycle. To determine the accuracy of the MR velocity-mapping pulse sequence, measurements were obtained with a flow phantom. Mean blood flow was 144 mL/min ± 62 (standard deviation); mean velocity, 2.1 cm/sec ± 1.0; and mean cross-sectional area, 1.2 cm2. Phasic measurements revealed a biphasic flow pattern in the coronary sinus, with a first peak in systole (257 mL/min ± 174) and a second peak in early diastole (1,090 mL/min ± 487). The cross-sectional area varied between 0.5 cm2 ± 0.2 at end diastole and 1.9 cm2 ± 0.6 in systole, a finding that suggests a capacitance function for venous outflow. Mean blood flow measurements were in agreement with measurements obtained invasively in previous studies. It is concluded that MR velocity mapping can enable noninvasive measurement of coronary venous outflow and global left ventricular perfusion and may become clinically useful in assessment of coronary blood flow reserve.
- Coronary vessels, MR
- Coronary vessels, flow dynamics
- Magnetic resonance (MR), cine study