Global Overview of Vitamin D Status

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Vitamin D deficiency occurs all over the world, mainly in the Middle East, China, Mongolia, and India. This article focuses on the vitamin D status in adults. Risk groups include older persons, pregnant women, and non-Western immigrants. Adequate vitamin D status, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D greater than 50 nmol/L, is present in less than 50% of the world population, at least in winter. Preventative strategies, such as increasing fish consumption, fortification of foods, use of vitamin D supplements, and advice for moderate sunlight exposure, are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)845-870
Number of pages26
JournalEndocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017


  • Adults
  • Global
  • Vitamin D status

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