The field of neurological diseases strongly needs biomarkers for early diagnosis and optimal stratification of patients in clinical trials or to monitor disease progression. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the main sources for the identification of novel protein biomarkers for neurological diseases. Despite the enormous efforts employed to identify novel CSF biomarkers, the high variability observed across different studies has hampered their validation and implementation in clinical practice. Such variability is partly caused by the effect of different pre-analytical confounding factors on protein stability, highlighting the importance to develop and comply with standardized operating procedures. In this chapter, we describe the international consensus pre-analytical guidelines for CSF processing and biobanking that have been established during the last decade, with a special focus on the influence of pre-analytical confounders on the global CSF proteome. In addition, we provide novel results on the influence of different delayed storage and freeze/thaw conditions on the CSF proteome using two novel large multiplex protein arrays (SOMAscan and Olink). Compliance to consensus guidelines will likely facilitate the successful development and implementation of CSF protein biomarkers in both research and clinical settings, ultimately facilitating the successful development of disease-modifying therapies.
|Methods in Molecular Biology
- Pre-analytical confounding factors