High prevalence of reduced bone mineral density in primary HIV-1-infected men

M.L. Grijsen, S.M.E. Vrouenraets, R. Steingröver, P.T.A.M. Lips, P. Reiss, F.W.N.M. Wit, J.M. Prins, Radjin Steingrover

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To assess the bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of men with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). Methods: Thirty-three men with PHI had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined according to WHO criteria as T-scores between -1 and -2.5 and -2.5 or less, respectively. The association between clinical and laboratory parameters and BMD was investigated using multivariable linear regression analysis. Results: Mean age was 38 (SD 9) years and mean body mass index (BMI) 22.7 (SD 3.3) kg/m(2). Twenty-four men (73%) had a negative or indeterminate Western blot, 32 men (97%) were combination antiretroviral therapy-naive. Mean plasma HIV-1 RNA was 5.0 (SD 1.2) log(10) copies/ml. Mean lumbar spine T (-0.8, SD 1.3, P = 0.001) and Z-scores (-0.7, SD 1.3, P = 0.004) and femoral neck T-score (-0.5, SD 0.9, P = 0.003) were significantly lower compared to the reference population. 15/33 men (45%) had osteopenia and 2/33 (6%) osteoporosis. Markers of bone turnover did not differ between patients with or without osteopenia/osteoporosis. Age was negatively associated with femoral neck (beta-coefficient = -0.05, P <0.001) and total hip T-scores (beta = -0.03, P = 0.04). BMI was associated with lumbar spine (beta = 0.3), femoral neck (beta = 0.2) and total hip (beta = 0.2) T-scores (P <0.001) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lumbar spine (beta = 0.5, P = 0.045) and femoral neck T-scores (beta = 0.4, P = 0.005). Increased plasma viral load was associated with lower total hip T-scores (beta = -0.2, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Reduced BMD was prevalent in PHI men and was associated with increased age, lower BMI and TSH levels, and higher levels of HIV-1 viremia. (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2233-2238
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Cite this