Objective: To assess the incidence of testicular cancer in trans women (male sex assigned at birth, female gender identity) using gender-affirming hormonal treatment. Patients and Methods: Data of trans women starting hormonal treatment at our gender identity clinic between 1972 and 2017 were linked to the national pathology database to obtain testicular cancer diagnoses. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated using the number of observed testicular cancer cases in our cohort and the number of expected cases based on age-specific Dutch incidence rates. Subgroup analyses were performed in testicular tissues sent for histopathological analysis at the time of bilateral orchidectomy, and when follow-up exceeded 5 years. Results: The cohort consisted of 3026 trans women with a median follow-up time of 2.3 interquartile range (IQR) (1.6–3.7) years. Two testicular cancer cases were identified whilst 2.4 cases were expected (SIR 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.1–2.8). In addition, one testicular cancer case was encountered in an orchidectomy specimen (0.1%). In the 523 trans women with a follow-up time of >5 years (median [IQR] 8.9 [6.4–13.9] years), no testicular cancer was observed. Conclusion: Testicular cancer risk in trans women is similar to the risk in cis men. The testicular cancer cases occurred within the first 5 years after commencing hormonal treatment, and the percentage of cases encountered at the time of bilateral orchidectomy was low. As no testicular cancer was observed in trans women with a long follow-up period, long-term hormonal treatment does not seem to increase testicular cancer risk.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)491-497
Number of pages7
JournalBJU international
Issue number4
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • #TesticularCancer
  • #tscsm
  • #uroonc
  • carcinogenesis
  • gender dysphoria
  • gender-affirming hormonal treatment
  • oestrogen
  • testicular cancer
  • transgender

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