Increased Risk of High-grade Cervical Neoplasia in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-controlled Cohort Study

R. L. Goetgebuer, J. E. Kreijne, C. A. Aitken, G. Dijkstra, F. Hoentjen, N. K. de Boer, B. Oldenburg, A. E. van der Meulen, C. I. J. Ponsioen, M. J. Pierik, F. J. van Kemenade, I. M. C. M. de Kok, A. G. Siebers, J. Manniën, C. J. van der Woude, A. C. de Vries

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3 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Women with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] may be at higher risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]. However, data are conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of high-grade dysplasia and cancer [CIN2+] in IBD women and identify risk factors. METHODS: Clinical data from adult IBD women in a multicentre Dutch IBD prospective cohort [PSI] from 2007 onwards were linked to cervical cytology and histology records from the Dutch nationwide cytology and pathology database [PALGA], from 2000 to 2016. Patients were frequency-matched 1:4 to a general population cohort. Standardised detection rates [SDR] were calculated for CIN2+. Longitudinal data were assessed to calculate CIN2+ risk during follow-up using incidence rate ratios [IRR] and risk factors were identified in multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Cervical records were available from 2098 IBD women [77%] and 8379 in the matched cohort; median follow-up was 13 years. CIN2+ detection rate was higher in the IBD cohort than in the matched cohort (SDR 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.52). Women with IBD had an increased risk of CIN2+ [IRR 1.66, 95% CI 1.21-2.25] and persistent or recurrent CIN during follow-up (odds ratio [OR] 1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.38). Risk factors for CIN2+ in IBD women were smoking and disease location (ileocolonic [L3] or upper gastrointestinal [GI] [L4]). CIN2+ risk was not associated with exposure to immunosuppressants. CONCLUSIONS: Women with IBD are at increased risk for CIN2+ lesions. These results underline the importance of human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination and adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines in IBD women, regardless of exposure to immunosuppressants.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1464-1473
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Crohn's & Colitis
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sept 2021


  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • human papillomavirus

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