BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is characterized by recurrent and unpredictable swellings that are disabling and potentially fatal. Selective inhibition of plasma prekallikrein production by antisense oligonucleotide treatment (donidalorsen) may reduce the frequency of attacks and the burden of disease. METHODS: In this phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency to receive four subcutaneous doses of either donidalorsen (80 mg) or placebo, with one dose administered every 4 weeks. The primary end point was the time-normalized number of investigator-confirmed angioedema attacks per month (attack rate) between week 1 (baseline) and week 17. Secondary end points included quality of life, as measured with the Angioedema Quality of Life Questionnaire (scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating worse quality of life), and safety. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were enrolled, of whom 14 were randomly assigned to receive donidalorsen and 6 to receive placebo. The mean monthly rate of investigator-confirmed angioedema attacks was 0.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.39) among patients receiving donidalorsen and 2.21 (95% CI, 0.58 to 3.85) among patients receiving placebo (mean difference, -90%; 95% CI, -96 to -76; P<0.001). The mean change from baseline to week 17 in the Angioedema Quality of Life Questionnaire score was -26.8 points in the donidalorsen group and -6.2 points in the placebo group (mean difference, -20.7 points; 95% CI, -32.7 to -8.7). The incidence of mild-to-moderate adverse events was 71% among patients receiving donidalorsen and 83% among those receiving placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with hereditary angioedema, donidalorsen treatment resulted in a significantly lower rate of angioedema attacks than placebo in this small, phase 2 trial. (Funded by Ionis Pharmaceuticals; ISIS 721744-CS2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04030598.).