Late endocrine effects after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with nonmalignant diseases

L. C. de Kloet, J. E. Bense, M. Y. E. C. van der Stoep, M. Louwerens, E. G. J. von Asmuth, A. C. Lankester, A. P. J. de Pagter, S. E. Hannema

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The number of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for nonmalignant diseases has increased in recent years. Endocrine complications are common after HSCT for malignant diseases, while little is known about long-term prevalence and risk factors in children transplanted for nonmalignant diseases. We retrospectively evaluated gonadal function, near adult height and thyroid function in 197 survivors of pediatric HSCT for hemoglobinopathies (n = 66), inborn errors of immunity/metabolism (n = 74) and bone marrow failure disorders (n = 57); median follow-up was 6.2 years (range 3.0–10.5). Gonadal dysfunction occurred in 55% of (post)pubertal females, was still present at last assessment in 43% and was more common after busulfan- than treosulfan-based conditioning (HR 10.6, CI 2.2–52.7; adjusted for HSCT indication). Gonadal dysfunction occurred in 39% of (post)pubertal males, was still present at last assessment in 32% and was less common in those who were prepubertal compared to (post)pubertal at HSCT (HR 0.11; CI 0.05–0.21). Near adult height was more than 2 SDS below mean parental height in 21% of males and 8% of females. Hypothyroidism occurred in 16% of patients; 4% received thyroxin treatment. In conclusion, endocrine complications, especially gonadal dysfunction, are common after pediatric HSCT for nonmalignant conditions. In females, treosulfan seems less gonadotoxic than busulfan. Careful long-term endocrine follow-up is indicated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1564-1572
Number of pages9
JournalBone marrow transplantation
Issue number10
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022

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