Longitudinal assessment of lipoprotein(A) levels in perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents

Jason G. van Genderen, Malon van den Hof, Claudia G. de Boer, Hans P. G. Jansen, Sander J. H. van Deventer, Sotirios Tsimikas, Joseph L. Witztum, John J. P. Kastelein, Dasja Pajkrt

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HIV is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD); therefore, perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children potentially have a greater CVD risk at older age. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an established risk factor for CVD in the general population. To evaluate a potential increased CVD risk for PHIV children, we determined their lipid profiles including Lp(a). In the first substudy, we assessed the lipid profiles of 36 PHIV children visiting the outpatient clinic in Amsterdam between 2012 and 2020. In the second substudy, we enrolled 21 PHIV adolescents and 23 controls matched for age, sex and ethnic background on two occasions with a mean follow-up time of 4.6 years. We assessed trends of lipid profiles and their determinants, including patient and disease characteristics, using mixed models. In the first substudy, the majority of PHIV children were Black (92%) with a median age of 8.0y (5.7–10.8) at first assessment. Persistent elevated Lp(a) levels were present in 21/36 (58%) children (median: 374 mg/L (209–747); cut off = 300). In the second substudy, the median age of PHIV adolescents was 17.5y (15.5–20.7) and of matched controls 16.4y (15.8–19.5) at the second assessment. We found comparable lipid profiles between groups. In both studies, increases in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol were associated with higher Lp(a) levels. A majority of PHIV children and adolescents exhibited elevated Lp(a) levels, probably associated with ethnic background. Nonetheless, these elevated Lp(a) levels may additionally contribute to an increased CVD risk.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2067
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • Apolipoproteins dyslipidemia
  • Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Human immunodeficiency virus

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