Maternal Psychological Problems During Pregnancy and Child Externalizing Problems: Moderated Mediation Model with Child Self-regulated Compliance and Polygenic Risk Scores for Aggression: Moderated Mediation Model with Child Self-regulated Compliance and Polygenic Risk Scores for Aggression

Mannan Luo, Irene Pappa, Charlotte A. M. Cecil, Philip Jansen, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Rianne Kok

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A potential pathway underlying the association between prenatal exposure to maternal psychological problems and childhood externalizing problems is child self-regulation. This prospective study (N = 687) examined whether self-regulated compliance mediates the relation between maternal affective problems and hostility during pregnancy and childhood externalizing problems, and explored moderation by child polygenic risk scores for aggression and sex. Self-regulated compliance at age 3 was observed in mother–child interactions, and externalizing problems at age 6 were reported by mothers and teachers. Polygenic risk scores were calculated based on a genome-wide association study of aggressive behavior. Self-regulated compliance mediated the associations between maternal psychological problems and externalizing problems. Aggression PRS was associated with higher externalizing problems reported by mothers. No evidence was found of moderation by aggression PRS or sex. These findings support the hypothesis that maternal psychological problems during pregnancy might influence externalizing problems through early self-regulation, regardless of child genetic susceptibility or sex.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)654-666
Number of pages13
JournalChild psychiatry and human development
Issue number4
Early online date20 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Externalizing problems
  • Maternal psychological problems
  • Polygenic risk scores
  • Prenatal effect
  • Self-regulated compliance

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