Measuring positive caregiving experiences in family caregivers of nursing home residents: A comparison of the Positive Experiences Scale, Gain in Alzheimer Care INstrument, and Positive Aspects of Caregiving questionnaire

Hanneke J. A. Smaling, Karlijn J. Joling, Wilco P. Achterberg, Anneke L. Francke, Jenny T. van der Steen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: To compare the Positive Experiences Scale (PES), Gain in Alzheimer Care INstrument (GAIN) and Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) in assessing positive caregiving experiences among caregivers of nursing home residents with dementia, and to explore which caregiver and care recipient characteristics relate to positive caregiving experiences. Methods: A total of 63 caregivers (mean age 59.2 years; SD 11.8) of nursing home residents with dementia from four Dutch nursing homes participated in this cross-sectional observational study. Internal consistency, convergent validity and user-friendliness (i.e. perception of item relevance and comprehensibility, ease of use, missing items, and user preference) were examined using Cronbach's alpha's, correlation coefficients and descriptive statistics, respectively. Results: The Cronbach's alpha for the GAIN, PAC and PES was 0.90, 0.94 and 0.68, respectively. The sum score of the PES showed a ceiling effect. Convergent validity was confirmed for all three instruments. The PES had the least missing data (mean number of missing items 0.2, SD 0.5) and was preferred by 40% of the caregivers, followed by the GAIN (mean number of missing items 0.6, SD 1.7, preferred by 11%). Positive caregiving experiences were negatively associated with educational level (range −0.28 to −0.35). Only the PES correlated positively with caregiver age (r = 0.25). Conclusions: All three questionnaires can be used to assess positive caregiving experiences, but the GAIN might be the most suitable questionnaire for caregivers of nursing home residents with dementia. Further research is necessary to examine generalizability of the findings. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 636–643.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)636-643
Number of pages8
JournalGeriatrics & gerontology international
Issue number8
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • caregivers
  • dementia
  • internal consistency
  • nursing homes
  • positive caregiving experiences

Cite this