Objective: To investigate to what extent individuals report clinically relevant levels of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and concentration problems up to 12 months following COVID-19 symptom onset, using validated questionnaires. Methods: RECoVERED, a prospective cohort study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, enrolled both hospitalized and community-dwelling adult participants diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 1, 3, 6 and 12 months following illness onset. The DSM-V PTSD checklist was administered at month 3 and 9. Concentration problems were assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength concentration subscale at month 1 and 12. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine factors related with clinically relevant levels of depression-, anxiety- and PTSD-symptoms and concentration problems over time. Results: In 303 individuals, the prevalence of clinically relevant symptoms of depression, anxiety and concentration problems was 10.6% (95%CI = 7.2–15.4), 7.0% (95%CI = 4.4–11.2) and 33.6% (95%CI = 27.7–40.1), respectively, twelve months after infection. Nine months after illness onset, 4.2% (95%CI = 2.3–7.7) scored within the clinical range of PTSD. Risk factors for an increased likelihood of reporting mental health problems during follow up included initial severe/critical COVID-19, non-Dutch origin, psychological problems prior to COVID-19 and being infected during the first COVID-19 wave. Conclusion: Our findings highlight that a minority of patients with COVID-19 face clinically relevant symptoms of depression, anxiety or PTSD up to 12 months after infection. The prevalence of concentration problems was high. This study contributes to the identification of specific groups for which support after initial illness is indicated.
Original languageEnglish
Article number111520
JournalJournal of psychosomatic research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • Anxiety
  • COVID-19
  • Concentration problems
  • Depression
  • Mental health
  • PTSD

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