Mutations in PIH1D3 Cause X-Linked Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Outer and Inner Dynein Arm Defects

Tamara Paff, Niki T. Loges, Isabella Aprea, Kaman Wu, Zeineb Bakey, Eric G. Haarman, Johannes M.A. Daniels, Erik A. Sistermans, Natalija Bogunovic, Gerard W. Dougherty, Inga M. Höben, Jörg Große-Onnebrink, Anja Matter, Heike Olbrich, Claudius Werner, Gerard Pals, Miriam Schmidts, Heymut Omran, Dimitra Micha

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108 Citations (Scopus)


Defects in motile cilia and sperm flagella cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by chronic airway disease, infertility, and left-right body axis disturbance. Here we report maternally inherited and de novo mutations in PIH1D3 in four men affected with PCD. PIH1D3 is located on the X chromosome and is involved in the preassembly of both outer (ODA) and inner (IDA) dynein arms of cilia and sperm flagella. Loss-of-function mutations in PIH1D3 lead to absent ODAs and reduced to absent IDAs, causing ciliary and flagellar immotility. Further, PIH1D3 interacts and co-precipitates with cytoplasmic ODA/IDA assembly factors DNAAF2 and DNAAF4. This result has clinical and genetic counseling implications for genetically unsolved male case subjects with a classic PCD phenotype that lack additional phenotypes such as intellectual disability or retinitis pigmentosa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-168
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican journal of human genetics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2017

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