Normal values of the ventricular gradient and QRS-T angle, derived from the pediatric electrocardiogram

Vivian P. Kamphuis, Nico A. Blom, Erik W. van Zwet, Sumche Man, Arend D. J. ten Harkel, Arie C. Maan, Cees A. Swenne

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Normal values of the mathematically-synthesized vectorcardiogram (VCG) are lacking for children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess normal values of the pediatric synthesized VCG (spatial QRS-T angle [SA] and ventricular gradient [VG]). Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 1263 subjects (0-24 years) with a normal heart were retrospectively selected. VCGs were synthesized by the Kors matrix. Normal values (presented as 2nd and 98th percentiles) were assessed by quantile regression with smoothing by splines. Our results show that heart rate decreased over age, QRS duration increased and QTc interval remained constant. The SA initially decreased and increased again from the age of 8 years. The VG magnitude was relatively stable until the age of 2 years, after which it increased. Normal values of the pediatric ECG and VCG (VG and SA) were established. These normal values could be important for future studies using VG and SA for risk stratification in heart disease in children
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)490-495
JournalJournal of electrocardiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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