Nutrient Intake and Muscle Measures in Geriatric Outpatients

Suey S. Y. Yeung, Esmee M. Reijnierse, Petrus J. J. F. Deen, Marijke C. Trappenburg, Carel G. M. Meskers, Andrea B. Maier

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Objective: Low muscle mass and muscle function are associated with adverse health outcomes in older adults. This study examined nutrient intake as a potential contributing factor for low muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle power in geriatric outpatients. Method: This cross-sectional study included geriatric outpatients (n = 58, 38 female) with a mean age of 77.2 ± 9.0 years referred to the Falls and Balance outpatient clinic between December 2017 and January 2019. Nutrient intake (macro- and micronutrients) was examined using a 3-day food diary. Energy-adjusted nutrient intake was calculated using the residual method. Sex-standardized muscle measures included muscle mass assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (skeletal muscle mass [SMM in kilograms], SMM index [SMM/height2 in kg/m2], and SMM/body mass index), handgrip strength (muscle strength) assessed using a dynamometer, and chair-stand test (muscle power). Univariate linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations of nutrient intake with muscle measures adjusted for age and body weight. A Bonferroni correction was applied to account for multiple testing (p < 0.001). Results: Higher energy, iodine, and folate intake were associated with higher muscle mass, and higher folate intake was associated with higher muscle strength (p < 0.05). After Bonferroni correction, none of the nutrient intakes remained statistically significant. None of the other nutrients was associated with muscle measures. Conclusions: Only a few nutrients were associated with muscle measures. Nutrient intake appears to be more related to muscle mass than muscle strength and muscle power in geriatric outpatients.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)589-597
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Nutrition
Issue number7
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Aged
  • diet
  • muscles
  • nutrition assessment
  • sarcopenia

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