Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous or open irreversible electroporation (IRE) in a prospective cohort of patients with locally advanced, unresectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC). Materials and Methods: In a multicenter Phase I/II study, patients with unresectable PHC due to extensive vascular involvement or N2 lymph node metastases or local recurrence after resection for PHC were included and treated by open or percutaneous IRE combined with palliative chemotherapy (current standard of care). The primary outcome was the number of major adverse events occurring within 90 d after IRE (grade ≥3), and the upper limit was predefined at 60%. Secondary outcomes included technical success rate, hospital stay, and overall survival (OS). Results: Twelve patients (mean age, 63 y ± 12) were treated with IRE. The major adverse event rate was 50% (6 of 12 patients), and no 90-d mortality was observed. All procedures were technically successful, with no intraprocedural adverse events requiring additional interventions. The median OS from diagnosis was 21 mos (95% confidence interval, 15–27 mos), with a 1-y survival rate of 75% after IRE. Conclusions: Percutaneous IRE in selected patients with locally advanced PHC seems feasible, with a major adverse event rate of 50%, which was below the predefined upper safety limit in this prospective study. Future comparative research exploring the efficacy of IRE is warranted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)805-813.e1
JournalJournal of vascular and interventional radiology
Issue number7
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

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