Radiation Exposure to Surgeon and Assistant During Flat Panel Mini C-Arm Fluoroscopy in Hand and Wrist Surgical Procedures

Juliaan R.M. van Rappard, Tijmen de Jong, Willy A. Hummel, Marco J.P.F. Ritt, Chantal M. Mouës

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: During mini C-arm fluoroscopy, both the patient and surgical team are exposed to scatter radiation. The objective of this study was to quantify body, thyroid, and hand radiation exposure to surgeon and assistant during intraoperative use of flat panel mini C-arm fluoroscopy in hand and wrist surgical procedures. Methods: Over 5 months, the surgeon's and assistant's radiation exposure was recorded during all osseous hand and wrist surgical procedures. Whole-body and thyroid radiation exposure were measured with 2 types of dosimeters: a photon thermoluminescence detector and a RaySafe i2 real-time dosimeter. Ring dosimeters were used to quantify hand radiation exposure. Results: Mini C-arm fluoroscopy was used in 94 surgical procedures. Total fluoroscopy time was 1,996 seconds and varied between surgical procedures (range, 1-152 seconds; median, 11 seconds). No thermoluminescence detector photon dosimeter exceeded the threshold limit of 0.1 mSv. The RaySafe i2 real-time dosimeters recorded a cumulated dose of 0.029 mSv for the body and 0.012 mSv for the thyroid position of the surgeon. The assistant received a cumulated dose of 0.011 mSv for the body and 0.011 mSv for the thyroid position. The ring dosimeters showed a cumulated dosage of 1.28 mSv for the surgeon and 0.20 mSv for the assistant. Conclusions: Our results show that the surgeon's and assistant's body, thyroid, and hands were exposed to acceptable levels of scatter radiation during intraoperative use of the flat panel mini C-arm. The surgeon received the highest radiation exposure: 2.9% of the yearly radiation limits for the body, 0.05% for the thyroid position, and 2.56% for the hands. The assistant was exposed to less scatter radiation: 1.1% for the body, 0.04% for the thyroid, and 0.4% for the hands. Clinical relevance: This study quantified radiation levels to which surgeon and assistant are exposed during mini C-arm fluoroscopy in hand and wrist surgical procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68.e1-68.e5
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Hand
  • mini C-arm
  • radiation
  • surgeon

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