Radiofrequency ablation to achieve durable pulmonary vein isolation

Research output: Contribution to JournalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) by radiofrequency (RF) ablation is an important alternative to antiarrhythmic drugs in the treatment of symptomatic atrial fibrillation. However, the inability to consistently achieve durable isolation of the pulmonary veins hampers the long-term efficacy of PVI procedures. The large number of factors involved in RF lesion formation and the complex interplay of these factors complicate reliable creation of durable and transmural ablation lesions. Various surrogate markers of ablation lesion formation have been proposed that may provide information on RF lesion completeness. Real-time assessment of these surrogates may aid in the creation of transmural ablation lesions, and therefore, holds potential to decrease the risk of PV reconnection and consequent post-PVI arrhythmia recurrence. Moreover, titration of energy delivery until lesions is transmural may prevent unnecessary ablation and subsequent adverse events. Whereas several surrogate markers of ablation lesion formation have been described over the past decades, a 'gold standard' is currently lacking. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of ablation strategies that aim to enhance durability of RF-PVI, with special focus on real-time available surrogates of RF lesion formation in light of the biophysical basis of RF ablation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)874-886
Number of pages13
Issue number6
Early online date29 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2022


  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Catheter ablation
  • Lesion assessment
  • Radiofrequency

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