Renal Dysfunction and Elevated Blood Pressure in Long-Term Childhood Cancer Survivors

Sebastiaan L. Knijnenburg, Monique W. Jaspers, Helena J. van der Pal, Antoinette Y. Schouten-van Meeteren, Antonia H. Bouts, Jan A. Lieverst, Arend Bökenkamp, Caro C. E. Koning, Foppe Oldenburger, James C. H. Wilde, Flora E. van Leeuwen, Huib N. Caron, Leontien C. Kremer, A. Bokenkamp

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Background and objectives Little is known about renal function and blood pressure (BP) in long-term childhood cancer survivors. This cross-sectional study evaluated prevalence of these outcomes and associated risk factors in long-term childhood cancer survivors at their first visit to a specialized outpatient clinic. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements Estimated GFR; percentages of patients with albuminuria, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia; and BP were assessed in 1442 survivors >= 5 years after diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate effect of chemotherapy, nephrectomy, and radiation therapy on the different outcomes. Results At a median age of 19.3 years (interquartile range, 15.6-24.5 years), 28.1% of all survivors had at least one renal adverse effect or elevated BP. The median time since cancer diagnosis was 12.1 years (interquartile range, 7.8-17.5 years). High BP and albuminuria were most prevalent, at 14.8% and 14.5%, respectively. Sixty-two survivors (4.5%) had an estimated GFR <90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Survivors who had undergone nephrectomy had the highest risk for diminished renal function (odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4-21.4). Combined radiation therapy and nephrectomy increased the odds of having elevated BP (odds ratio, 4.92; 95% CI, 2.63-9.19), as did male sex, higher body mass index, and longer time since cancer treatment. Conclusion Almost 30% of survivors had renal adverse effects or high BP. Therefore, monitoring of renal function in high-risk groups and BP in all survivors may help clinicians detect health problems at an early stage and initiate timely therapy to prevent additional damage. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 7: 1416-1427, 2012. doi: 10.2215/CJN.09620911
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1416-1427
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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