Response Assessment in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology: Implementation and Expansion of the RANO Criteria in a Randomized Phase II Trial of Pediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas

T. Jaspan, P. S. Morgan, M. Warmuth-Metz, E. Sanchez Aliaga, J.D. Warren, R. Calmon, J Grill, D. Hargrave, J. Garcia, G. Zahlmann

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28 Citations (Scopus)


Determination of tumor response to treatment in neuro-oncology is challenging, particularly when antiangiogenic agents are considered. Nontumoral factors (eg, blood-brain barrier disruption, edema, and necrosis) can alter contrast enhancement independent of true tumor response/progression. Furthermore, gliomas are often infiltrative, with nonenhancing components. In adults, the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria attempted to address these issues. No such guidelines exist yet for children. The ongoing randomized phase II trial, A Study of Avastin (bevacizumab) in Combination With Temolozomide (TMZ) and Radiotherapy in Paediatric and Adolescent Patients With High-Grade Glioma (HERBY), will establish the efficacy and safety of the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab for the first-line treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade glioma in children (n = 121 patients, enrollment complete). The primary end point is event-free survival (tumor progression/recurrence by central review, second primary malignancy, or death). Determination of progression or response is based on predefined clinical and radiographic criteria, modeled on the RANO criteria and supported by expert pseudoprogression review and the use of standardized imaging protocols. The HERBY trial will also compare conventional MR imaging (T1-weighted and T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences) with conventional MR imaging plus diffusion/perfusion imaging for response assessment. It is anticipated that HERBY will provide new insights into antiangiogenic-treated pediatric brain tumors. HERBY will also investigate the practicality of obtaining adequate quality diffusion/perfusion scans in a trial setting, and the feasibility of implementing standard imaging protocols across multiple sites. To date, 61/73 (83.6%) patients with available data have completed diffusion-weighted imaging (uptake of other nonconventional techniques has been limited). Harmonization of imaging protocols and techniques may improve the robustness of pediatric neuro-oncology studies and aid future trial comparability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1581-1587
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican journal of neuroradiology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2016


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use
  • Bevacizumab/therapeutic use
  • Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
  • Child
  • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
  • Disease Progression
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Glioma/diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male

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