Restoration of Default Blood Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Polarization With Adalimumab But Not Etanercept in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Audrey Paoletti, Bineta Ly, Samuel Bitoun, Gaëtane Nocturne, Elodie Rivière, Jessica J. Manson, Andrea Matucci, Marc Pallardy, Niek de Vries, Xavier Mariette

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Introduction: We previously reported a specific defect of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) monocyte polarization to anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages related to increased miR-155 expression in all RA patients except those receiving adalimumab (ADA). In this longitudinal study, we examined whether different tumor necrosis factor inhibitors were able to restore monocyte polarization to M2-like macrophages and their effect on the transcriptomic signature. Methods: M2-like polarization induced by human serum AB was studied in 7 healthy donors and 20 RA patients included in the ABIRA cohort before and 3 months after starting ADA or etanercept (ETA). The differential gene expression of M2- and M1-related transcripts was studied in macrophage-derived monocytes after differentiation. Results: At baseline, RA monocytes showed a defect of polarization to M2-like macrophages as compared with healthy donor monocytes, which was negatively correlated with disease activity. M2-like polarization from circulating monocytes was restored only with ADA and not ETA treatment. The transcriptomic signature demonstrated downregulation of M2-related transcripts and upregulation of M1-related transcripts in active RA. In patients receiving ADA, the transcriptomic signature of M2-related transcripts was restored. Conclusion: This longitudinal study demonstrates that ADA but not ETA is able to restore the M2-like polarization of monocytes that is defective in RA.
Original languageEnglish
Article number832117
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2022


  • Adalimumab
  • Etanercept
  • M2-like macrophages
  • monocyte-derived macrophages
  • rheumatoid arthritis

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